Sunday, August 18, 2019

Holland Tunnel Essay -- History Historical tunnels Engineering Essays

Holland Tunnel It has taken engineers thousands of years to perfect the art of digging tunnels. Today tunnels provide available space for cars and trains, water and sewage, even power and communication lines. However, before cars and trains, tunnels carried only water. The first to use tunnels on a major scale were the Romans. Roman engineers created the most extensive network of tunnels in the ancient world. The Romans built aqueducts to carry water from mountain springs to cities and villages; however, in many instances there were obstacles, such as rock formations, in between the spring and the city of interest. To solve these problems the Romans built tunnels by carving underground chambers and building elegant arch structures to carry fresh water into the city and wastewater out. As transportation technology progressed the demand for tunnels also evolved, and by the 17th century tunnels were being constructed for canals. Before the use of roads or railways to transport raw materials from the country to the city, waterways were the best way to haul freight over great distances. The major expansion in tunnel construction came with the introduction of the train and the automobile in the 19th and 20th century. The first major underwater mechanically ventilated tunnel was the Holland tunnel; it set the stage for all tunnels to follow by tackling the engineering obstacles surrounding underwater automobile tunnel traffic. With the rapid rise of the auto at the turn of the century Hudson River ferries struggled to meet demands and were carrying 30 million vehicles each year between New York and New Jersey. In 1906 a joint commission between New York and New Jersey was created to bridge the Hudson between Manhattan and Jer... ... normalize. The bridge opened in 1927 at the time the toll was 50 cents and the trip took eight minutes. The tunnel, when it opened, was the longest underwater tunnel in the world, with its north tube 8,558 feet long and its south tube 8,371 feet long. On its first day of operation 51,694 vehicles passed through it. The total cost of the tunnel was $48 million. Today, it would cost approximately $1.4 billion not including the purchase of the necessary land from Manhattan and Jersey City. Work Cited, Tuesday October 2, 2004, Tuesday October 2, 2004, Tuesday October 2, 2004, Tuesday October 2, 2004, Tuesday October 2, 2004

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